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Thursday, August 24, 2017

Affixes

Prefixes
முன்னொட்டு (Prefix) என்பது ஒரு மூலச் சொல் அல்லது வேர் சொல்லின் முன் ஒட்டாக இணைந்து பயன்படும் எழுத்துக்கள் ஆகும். இன்னொருவகையில் இதனை "விகுதி" என்றும் அழைகலாம்.
இவ்வாறு முன்னொட்டுகளோடு சொற்கள் சேர்ந்து வரும் போது சொற்களின் அர்த்தம்(meanig), வகை (class) மாறுபடுகின்றது. பின்வரும் அட்டவணையை நோக்குக.

prefix
meaning / use
Meaning Tamil
anti + noun
anti + adjective
anti + adjective/noun
opposite
against
எதிர்மாறான/எதிராக
, anti-climax, anti-tank, anti-hero , anti-aircraft, anti-theft device / anti-European
anti- clockwise
antisocial,  
Bi + noun
two
இரு
bilingual, biculture, bi-metalism
co + noun / verb
together
 ஒன்றாக
co + noun
co + verb
Cohabit, co-chairman, co captain, coactions
coexist, co-produced, cofocus ,
 cofound,
dis + verb
negative/opposite
இன்மை/எதிர்மாறான நடவடிக்கை
Dislike, disembark, dishonest, disadvantage, disappear, disagreeably
il + adjective
opposite
அற்ற
Illegal, illogical,
im + adjective
 opposite
அற்ற
Impossible, immorally ,
in+adjective
opposite
அற்ற
Indirect, inexpensive,
inter + adjective
between
இடையிலே
Intercontinental, inaccessible, inadmissible, inadequate, Inapplicable, inaudible,
ir + adjective
opposite
அற்ற
irregular
mis + verb
wrongly/ badly
தவறாக 
mistook ,mishandle, mislead, misinform, misidentify
over + verb + adj.
too much
அளவு மீறிய
Overwork, overload, overconfident, overjoyed
out + verb
more
மிகையளவான
Outnumber, outgrow, outlive, outwit, outnumber
post + noun / verb
after
பின்
post + noun
post + verb
Post+ adj.
Postgraduate, postproduction
postdate, postpone
postmark
post-industrial
pre + noun / verb
before
முன்
pre + noun
pre + verb
pre- arrangement, pre-plan
Prepay, prefix
pro + noun / adjective
in favour of
சார்பான
pro + noun
pro + adj.
pro-Unions , pro-European
Proactive, prolong
Re + noun / verb
again
மீண்டும்
Re + noun
Re + verb
restructure, refinance
revisit, reappear, rebuild,
sub + adjective
below
கீழ்ப்பட்ட
Substandard, subway, submarine,  subset,
super + noun/ adjective
greater than
 மிக மேன்மையான
Superhuman, super-rich, superglue
trans + noun / verb /
across
கடந்து
transplant ,transcontinental, transatlantic, transform
un + verb / adjective
negative / opposite
அற்ற/ எதிர்மாறான நடவடிக்கை
un + adj., noun, adv
un + verb
unhappy, unable, uncouple, unhealthy,  unconscious, unconsciously,
Unlock, unbend, unfasten, untie,
under + verb
not enough/too little
போதாத/கீழான
undercook / undercharge

Suffixes
பின்னொட்டு(Suffix) என்பது ஒரு மூலச் சொல் அல்லது வேர்ச் சொல்லின் பின் ஒட்டாக இணைந்து பயன்படும் எழுத்துக்கள் ஆகும். இவ்வாறு பின்னொட்டுக்களோடு சொற்கள் சேர்ந்து வரும் போது சொற்களின் அர்த்தம், வகை மாறுபடுகின்றது.




-ness (nouns from adjectives)                                                                    -tion / -sion (nouns from verbs) 
Verb
Noun
confess
confession
confuse
confusion
decide
decision
divide
division
revise
revision
impress
impression
profess
profession
educate
education
inform
information
combine
combination

Adjective
Noun
Happy
happiness
Tidy
tidiness
Weak
weakness
Soft
softness
Open
openness
Aware
awareness
Mild
mildness
Nervous
nervousness
Forgetful
forgetfulness
Tired
tiredness

...........

                                         -

-ship (noun from N/V/Adj)
Noun
Collective noun
censor
censorship
partner
partnership
scholar
 scholarship
dealer
 dealership
workman
workmanship
apprentice
apprenticeship

 -ment (nouns from verbs and adjectives)  

Verb/Adjective
Noun
agree
agreement
pay
payment
employ
employment
argue
argument
merry
merriment
appoint
appointment
annul
annulment
pronounce
pronouncement
enrol
enrolment
enjoy
enjoyment

.....
-ity (nouns from adjectives)

Adjective
Noun
active
 activity
stupid
stupidity
curious
 curiosity
mobile
mobility
real
reality
tranquil
tranquillity










ance / -ence (nouns from adjectives and verbs)      
Adjectives / verbs
Noun
attend
attendance
accept
acceptance
prefer
 preference
insure
insurance
refer
reference
exist
existence
silent
silence


............

-ship (noun from N/V/Adj)
Noun
Collective noun
censor
censorship
partner
partnership
scholar
 scholarship
dealer
 dealership
workman
workmanship
apprentice
apprenticeship

.....

-hood (collective noun from noun)

Noun/verb/adj
Noun-abstract
brother
brotherhood
widow
 widowhood
neighbour
 neighbourhood
child
childhood
live
 livelihood (V→N)
false
 falsehood (Adj→N)









..............

-ful  - meaning --full of                                                    
                           
Noun
Adjective
beauty    
 beautiful
skill
skilful
wonder
 wonderful
success
successful
awe
 awful
delight
 delightful



   - less - meaning – without/இல்லாமல்    
Noun
Adjective
power   
powerless
use
useless
friend
friendless
home
 homeless
worth
worthless
penny
penniless














....

-ous - meaning --quality, nature                                                                                -
Noun
Adjective
poison
 poisonous
courtesy
courteous
danger
dangerous
mystery
mysterious
nerve
nervous
victory
victorious

some- meaning –producing ;likely to

Noun
Adjective
Middle
meddlesome
fear
fearsome
quarrel
quarrelsome
Whole
wholesome
Toil
toilsome
Venture
venturesome
Four
Foursome
Tire
tiresome









......


.....

Other affixes which is used to form adjective from noun.

SUFFIX
NOUN              ADJECTIVE
-AL     (relating to)
accident – accidental
region – regional
brute – brutal
person – personal
region – regional
universe –universal
-ARY  (relating to quality or place)
custom – customary
compliment – complimentary
moment – momentary
honour – honorary
caution – cautionary
diet – dietary
-IC  (having the nature of; caused by)
athlete – athletic
photograph – photographic
base – basic
science – scientific
history – historic
rhythm– rhythmic
-ICAL  (having the nature of)
magic – magical
practice – practical
logic – logical
statistic – statistical
history – historical
alphabet – alphabetical
-ISH  (origin, nature)
fool – foolish
sheep – sheepish
child – childish
pink – pinkish
self – selfish
girl – girlish
-LIKE ( like) 
like – lifelike
child – childlike
lady – ladylike
bird – birdlike
war – warlike
spring – springlike
-LY (like) 
friend – friendly
day – daily
cost – costly
order – orderly
month – monthly
coward – cowardly
-Y  (like) 
rain – rainy
mess – messy
fun – funny
dirt – dirty
dirt – dirty
spot – spotty

Verb to adjective

-ive- meaning --causing effect

Verb
Adjective
attract
 attractive
posses
 possessive
create
creative
prevent
preventive
select
 selective
destruct
destructive




Other affixes which is used to form adjective from verb.


SUFFIX
VERB             ADJECTIVE
-ABLE  able, can do
agree – agreeable
pass – passable
expand – expandable
remark – remarkable
laugh – laughable
pay – payable
-IBLE  able, can do
access – accessible
flex – flexible
force – forcible
permit – permissible
sense – sensible
force – forcible
-ANT  performing agent
please – pleasant
resist – resistant
rely – reliant
vacate – vacant
ignore – ignorant
comply – compliant
-ENT  performing agent
excel – excellent
urge – urgent
depend – dependent
differ – different
confide – confident
equal – equivalent
-ING  causing effect
amuse – amusing
relax –relaxing
excite – exciting
surprise –surprising
confuse – confusing
amaze – amusing
-ED  receiving effect
amuse – amused
relax – relaxed
excite – excited
surprise – surprised
confuse – confused
overwhelm – overwhelmed
-EN  receiving effect
freeze – frozen
braze – brazen
lighten – lightened
shorten – shortened
darken – darkened
widen – widened



Verb to Personal Noun


SUFFIX
VERB – PERSONAL NOUN
-ANT / ENT person
attend– attendant 
assist – assistant
inform – informant
correspond – correspondent
preside – president
reside – resident
-EE  
appoint – appointee
attend – attendee
pay – payee
trust – trustee
divorce – divorcée  (V/N)
license – licensee (V/N)
refuge – refugee (N→N)
-IST  
tour – tourist

type – typist




Adverb formation with “ly”

Adjective
Adverb
Late
Lately
Right
Rightly
Hopeful
Hopefully
Real
really
Angry
Angrily
Happy
Happily
Easy
easily
Possible
Possibly
Able
Ably
Academic
Academically
Classic
Classically




Have a glance at word formation

Verb
Noun
Adjective
Adverb
care
care
careful
careful
act
action
active
actively
Firm
firmness
firm
firmly
insult
insult
insulting
insultingly
back
Back
Back
back
clean
clean
clean
clean
close
close
close
close
……………………………..
……………………………….
………………………………..
…………………………………….
……………………………..
……………………………….
………………………………..
…………………………………….
……………………………..
……………………………….
………………………………..
…………………………………….



Activity

Select and add a correct prefix to the following words.

dis over pre in im co- dis mis il un mis

 



    1.       _____________________________ dependent.
    2.       _____________________________ polite.
   3.       _____________________________ driver.
   4.       _____________________________ approve.
  5.       _____________________________ behave.
  6.       _____________________________ logical.
  7.       _____________________________ zip.
  8.       _____________________________ inform.
  9.       _____________________________ agree.
 10.   _____________________________ eat.
  11.   _____________________________ historic.


Add suffix to the following words and create nouns

Column-A

Column-A
Column-B
react

hungry

act

helpful

connect

responsible

Animate

complex

opt

hilarious

instruct

scarce

Discuss

independent

Recess

admit

confuse

important

tense

appear

Comprehend

exist

manage

absent

improve

friend

achieve

partner

develop

member

amuse

relation

great

child

sad

adult

coarse

Neighbour


Use the words in brackets to form a word that suits in the blanks

     1.Ampaani is renowned for the…………………………  of cars.(PRODUCE)
     2. If you make a good……………………….  at the interview, you will get the job.(IMPRESS)
     3.Teaching and medicine are more than…………………….. , they're noble professions.(OCCUPY)
     4.My history teacher has a vast ……………………………………………… of Kandian Kingdom.                    (KNOW)
     5.You should obtain some …………………………..(QUALIFY)                                                    
     6. My greatest……………………… was winning essay competition (ACHIEVE)
     7. The weatherman said there is a strong …………………….. of rain today.(POSSIBLE)
      8.Some old techniques are no longer………………….. .(EFFECT)
      9. Anurathapura is ……………………… for its ancient buildings.(FAME)
     10.He was caught on burglary so now he has a………………………..  record.(CRIME)
     11. Despite her severe …………………., she fulfilled her goals in life.(DISABLE)
     12. Being………………..  is the worst thing that can happen to someone.(EMPLOY)
     13.If you buy presents in the new year season your ………………………. can be very high.(SAVE)
     14. with ………………..of  the pilot, the co-pilot managed to land safely.(GUIDE)
      15.I was surprised at his ……………………….. to give up.(REFUSE)
      16.Children are………………………….. of danger of colourful sweets.(AWARE)
      17.  She is always…………………………………. towards her parents.(RESPECT)
      18.Lanka hospital has the best medical……………………………  and fast ambulances.(EQUIP)
      19. You can relax in the comfortable…………………………. of the hotel.(SURROUND)
      20.I like the elegant …………………..of the house(enter)


Use the negative prefixes and the adjectives given to complete the sentences

possible - honest - sociable - patient
legal - responsible - pleasant - polite

 




   1. My aunt's children are so……………………………. They never say please and thank you.
    2.  Kiyas's really …………………... He never tells the truth.
    3. I wish I wasn't so…………………………, but I really don't like going out or talking to new people.
   4. Don't be so………………………….. . I'll be ready in 5 minutes.
    5. Kopal can be really………………………… sometimes. She seems like upsetting people.
   6. This maths problem is…………………………. I can't do it.
   7. I wouldn't ask my cousin brother to look after my little brother. He's too …………………………..
   8. In SriLanka, it's……………………………………… to buy cigarette product under the age of 17.


Test 9 (O/L – 2013)

Fill in the blanks in each sentence by using the correct form of the word given within brackets. The first one is done for you.

(1) The  announcement (announce) of closing the school early surprised everyone
(2) Artists must be……………………………..……(create) and not just repeat what they see or hear
(3) Music and dancing are two forms of……………………………..…… (entertain)
(4) ……………………………..…… (Science) have not proved yet that there is life on other planets
(5) Thusitha wants to be an……………………………..…… (electric) when he leaves school
(6) We need to know your ……………………………..…… (decide) as soon as possible

(5 marks)

Test 10 (O/L – 2012)

Some words in the following passage are incorrect. They are underlined. Write the correct form of the word in the space provided. The first one is done for you.


Many companies advertise jobs in the "Job Vacancies" section of newspapers. Typically a job 1.advertise includes a brief outline of the 2.responsible of the post and the qualifications expected.

 While newspapers are still a 3. value source of getting 4. inform about job vacancies, “could calling' is another source a person interested in working in an 5. organize can explore. This is the process of calling over the phone, e-mailing or 6. person visiting a company, seeking a job.

1.            Advertisement
2.            …………………………………………….
3.            …………………………………………….
4.            …………………………………………….
5.            …………………………………………….
6.            …………………………………………….
(5 marks)

Test 9 (O/L – 2011)

Underline the most suitable word in the brackets. The first one is done for you.

It is a well known fact that an advertisement must be (1) ……………………………..…… (attractive/attract/attraction). It must get the (2) ……………………………..…… (attend/attention/attendant) of the reader or the viewer.

The language of an advertisement must be clear and (3)................................... (easily/ easiness/easy ) understood. The reader or the viewer must be able to (4)................................... (response/respondent/respond) to the advertisement.

So (5)..................... (Beauty/beautiful/beautify) words are a must in an advertisement. An advertisement which doesn't persuade people to buy a product is a................................... (Fail/failing/failure).(5 Marks)




Test 09 (O/L – 2010)

Underline the most suitable word in the brackets. The first one is done for you.

While I was abroad l picked up a mystery (1) ...................................  (infect/infection/infectious). My doctor sent me to see a (2) ................................... (special/specially/specialist) because he didn't recognize my symptoms. After a through (3)...................................  (examine/examination/examiner) he asked a nurse to give me an (4) ..............................  (inject/ injector/injection). Although the arm was quite (5) ...................................   (pain/painful /painfully)  for several days, my (6) ...................................  (recover/recoverable/recovery) was quick. (5 marks)


Test 11 (O/L – 2008)
Complete the following paragraph using the words given in brackets to form a word that fits the blank space. The first one is done for you.

We love to see birds in their different  (differ) range of colours . Recently a three day (2) ................................... (exhibit) of photographs featuring birds was held in Galle. The title of it was “The Feathers”. The young (3) ................................... (Photograph) who had organized it told us that he became a bird watcher quite unexpectedly. His (4) ...................................  (curious) about birds turned into a love of bird-watching and then he had started to photograph them. The (5) ................................... (select) on display showed how far and wide he had travelled. His photographing of birds had made him quite (6) ...................................(knowledge) about the birds and their habitats.
(5 marks)


............

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