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Thursday, August 24, 2017

Word Classes


The main word classes in English are listed below.


1.       Verb
2.       Adjective
3.       Adverb
4.       Pronoun
5.       Preposition
6.       Conjunction
7.       Determiner
8.       Exclamation


Noun - பெயர்ச்சொல்
A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing,
A person - man,  girl, engineer, friend, Kalyani, Kamil.
A thing - horse, wall, flower, country, anger, courage, life, luckiness
A place- Sri Lanka, USA, India, Kalmunai, Colombo

The woman in the picture is my mother.
Her name is Amena. She’s from Mannar.

Classification of noun

Common noun- பொதுவான பெயர்சொற்கள்-  boy, country, bridge, city, birth, day, happiness.
Proper noun-  உரித்தானப் பெயர்சொற்கள் -Sita, Africa, Kalani Bridge, Jaffna , Monday.
 In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.
Concrete noun – திடப் பெயர்சொற்கள் -dog, building, tree, rain, beach, river, stars, keyboard,
A concrete noun is a noun which refers to people and to things that exist physically and can be seen, touched,
Abstract noun பண்புப் பெயர் - truth, danger, happiness, time, friendship, humour, love, kindness
Collective nouns கூட்டுப் பெயர்சொற்கள் - audience, family, government, team, jury.

Verb- வினைச் சொல்
A Verb is a word used to express an action or state.
Example: go, die, be, sing, happen, have, take, rain, know
The girl wrote a letter to her cousin.
She always singsat competition.
Kandy is a big city.

Adjective- பெயருரிச்சொற்கள்
An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun
Example:

sweet taste
red apple
technicalproblem
An Indianwoman

Famous song
This song
One dollar
 Some music
Loud noise
That way
Three tenors
More room
Green light
 These words
Several years
Less energy


He is a brave boy
There are twenty boys in this class

Adverbs வினையுரிச்சொற்கள்
An Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb..

Give information about a verb –
Example:
He walked slowly.
Please handle that carefully.
He works well.
Samilan runs quickly.
Kumar drove the car carefully.
I haven’t seen them recently.
The teacher was sitting here.
I'm going to clean my room tomorrow.
frequentlywatch the news.
The land belongs to my uncle who lives upstairs.

Give information about an adjective.
Example:
Rani is a verybeautiful girl in the class.
The programme is easilyaccessible by people.
The hall is almostfull.

Give information about an adverb.
She swims reallywell.
Don’t go sofast.
She pronounced the word quite correctly.

Prepositions – முன்னிடைச்சொற்கள்
Example- in, on, under, beyond, at, under, off etc…..
The cat wasunder the chair.
Shiraz is sitting between Rajesh and Ram.
His house was over the shop.

Pronouns – சுட்டுப்பெயர்கள் / பிரதிப்பெயர்கள் / சுட்டுப்பெயர்ச்சொற்கள்

Example- He, She, It, him, her, ours, yourselves etc...
Lal left the office early because he was tired.
Anthony brought the child with him.
That is the only choice we have now.
Something should happen.
This house is ours.


Conjunctions – இணைப்புச்சொற்கள் / இடைச்சொற்கள்

A Conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences
Example: and, but, or, either, neither, before, because etc….
Rama and Hari are friends.
Butter or cheese
I took the umbrellabecause it was raining.

Interjections – வியப்பிடைச்சொற்கள்
Example: Wow! Ha! Hi! Hello! Oh!
Wow!I won the match!

Determiner
A determiner is a word that introduces a noun,
Example:  a/an, the, every, this, those,much, or many

A dog
Thelion,
This parrot
Those children 
Every human 
Manythings



Exercises

Circle the noun(s), draw square on the verb(s) and draw triangle on adjective(s), and underline each adverb.

1.       The ship sailed smoothly into the harbour.
2.       My neighbour absolutely adores her cat.
3.       Put the new bookcase there, please.
4.       It rained heavily for most of the night.
5.       This author writes exceptionally gripping novels.
6.       He is surprisingly graceful.
7.       Tomorrow the painters begin work on our house.
8.       Can you believe that the plane actually arrived early?
9.       You must breathe more deeply at this altitude.
10.   My ears and nose became quite cold as we bathed in the sea.
11.   Patiently, Aathi shelled the peas.
12.   Emergency doctors quickly surrounded the incoming patient.
13.   Brad began to draft his report on election immediately after evening meal.
14.   The tree trunks still burns.
15.   The children tried hard to please their mother on her birthday.

Circle the adjectives.
1.       Everyone enjoys a relaxing day at the beach.(3)
2.       I can see about ten umbrellas.
3.       Those umbrellas protect sensitive skin from harmful sunlight.
4.       I usually sunbathe in a place with fewer people.
5.       I have moved there for several years.
6.       The hot sand burned my feet.
7.       When I go to that garden, I take cold drinks and salty snacks.
8.       If I am lucky, I can read an interesting book for a few hours.
9.       Little children play quietly near their parents.

Underline each adverb and draw an arrow to the word being modified.

1.       We cleaned the house thoroughly last week.
2.       Sandra rearranged the furniture yesterday.
3.       Drivers on the expressway must be very careful.
4.       The votes for president are still being counted.
5.       Rihana does exceptionally fine work.
6.       The Sri Lankan rugs were incredibly expensive.
7.       I heard your question clearly, but I don’t know the answer.
8.       The city often holds concerts in the playground.
9.       We write the answer quite correctly.
10.   The wind was bitterly cold during the month of January.


Label every word in following sentences.
Noun (N) Verb (V) Adjective (Adj) Adverb (Adv)

1. The student tasted the hamburger.
                N       V                   N
2. The bun tasted good.

3. The very big dog appears in the programme “Suttri warum bhomi”

4. The young child was skipping quickly.

5. Hope should not be ignored.

6. The girl feels incredibly sick today.

7. Today is not becoming a beautiful day.



Write the word class of the underlined word
1. _______ Tara picked a fresh rose out of the garden for her aunt.
2. _______ Do you know anyone with a rose garden?
3. _______ The sleeping bear cubs rose its mother for attention.
4. _______ We will book a hotel room before leaving for our trip.
5. _______ Caveri bought a new book.
06. _______ Sara needs more yellowpaint to finish the painting.
07. _______ Yellow is a warm colour.
08. _______ I ate some baby carrots for lunch.
09. _______ The newborn baby cried all night.
10. _______ My dad will baby his new car by waxing it every week.


Write the word class of the underlined word in the given gap.

a)      The house needed a good clean. ……………………………………………
b)      We clean the room………………………………………………………………….
c)       We need clean water and fresh air. ………………………………………
d)      I clean forgot about the exam. ………………………………………………

a)      We don’t eat or drink during fast. ……………………………………………
b)      My uncle bought a fast car. …………………………………………………….
c)       He runs fast. ……………………………………………………………………………
d)      Muslims fast during Ramadan. ……………………………………………….

a)      The rupees have fallen to an all-time low against the dollar. ……………………………………………
b)      The cows low in the morning. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
c)       The plane is flying at low altitude. ……………………………………………………………………………………..
d)      The candles were burning low. ………………………………………………………………………………………….

e)      Come out! ………………………………………………………………………….
f)       She ran out into the garden. ……………………………………………
g)      He was looking for an out. ……………………………………………..
h)      Their motives were outed………………………………………………

a)      I wrote wrong answers. ……………………………………………
b)      He didn’t do any wrong. ……………………………………………
c)       She wronged him
d)      My name is spelt wrong. ……………………………………………

a)      The water lily in the pond is beautiful……………………………………………
b)      We water the vegetable every morning………………………………………..
c)       There are some ducks gliding on the water……………………………………

a)      The well is near the wall………………………………………………………………………………………….
b)      The well-known poet was appreciated by the chief minister………………………………….
c)       She writes well…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

d)      Children enjoy making sand castles on the beach…………………………………………….
e)      The workers sand and polish the chair……………………………………………………………
f)       People walk on the sand……………………………………………………………………………………

a)      There is a lecture on feminism……………………………………………….
b)      This is the lecture hall…………………………………………………………….

c)       These scholars lecture in sociology……………………………………………

  
1.       Verb
2.       Adjective
3.       Adverb
4.       Pronoun
5.       Preposition
6.       Conjunction
7.       Determiner
8.       Exclamation


Noun - பெயர்ச்சொல்
A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing,
A person - man,  girl, engineer, friend, Kalyani, Kamil.
A thing - horse, wall, flower, country, anger, courage, life, luckiness
A place- Sri Lanka, USA, India, Kalmunai, Colombo

The woman in the picture is my mother.
Her name is Amena. She’s from Mannar.

Classification of noun

Common noun- பொதுவான பெயர்சொற்கள்-  boy, country, bridge, city, birth, day, happiness.
Proper noun-  உரித்தானப் பெயர்சொற்கள் -Sita, Africa, Kalani Bridge, Jaffna , Monday.
 In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.
Concrete noun – திடப் பெயர்சொற்கள் -dog, building, tree, rain, beach, river, stars, keyboard,
A concrete noun is a noun which refers to people and to things that exist physically and can be seen, touched,
Abstract noun பண்புப் பெயர் - truth, danger, happiness, time, friendship, humour, love, kindness
Collective nouns கூட்டுப் பெயர்சொற்கள் - audience, family, government, team, jury.

Verb- வினைச் சொல்
A Verb is a word used to express an action or state.
Example: go, die, be, sing, happen, have, take, rain, know
The girl wrote a letter to her cousin.
She always singsat competition.
Kandy is a big city.

Adjective- பெயருரிச்சொற்கள்
An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun
Example:

sweet taste
red apple
technicalproblem
An Indianwoman

Famous song
This song
One dollar
 Some music
Loud noise
That way
Three tenors
More room
Green light
 These words
Several years
Less energy


He is a brave boy
There are twenty boys in this class
Adverbs வினையுரிச்சொற்கள்
An Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb..

Give information about a verb –
Example:
He walked slowly.
Please handle that carefully.
He works well.
Samilan runs quickly.
Kumar drove the car carefully.
I haven’t seen them recently.
The teacher was sitting here.
I'm going to clean my room tomorrow.
frequentlywatch the news.
The land belongs to my uncle who lives upstairs.

Give information about an adjective.
Example:
Rani is a verybeautiful girl in the class.
The programme is easilyaccessible by people.
The hall is almostfull.

Give information about an adverb.
She swims reallywell.
Don’t go sofast.
She pronounced the word quite correctly.

Prepositions – முன்னிடைச்சொற்கள்
Example- in, on, under, beyond, at, under, off etc…..
The cat wasunder the chair.
Shiraz is sitting between Rajesh and Ram.
His house was over the shop.

Pronouns – சுட்டுப்பெயர்கள் / பிரதிப்பெயர்கள் / சுட்டுப்பெயர்ச்சொற்கள்

Example- He, She, It, him, her, ours, yourselves etc...
Lal left the office early because he was tired.
Anthony brought the child with him.
That is the only choice we have now.
Something should happen.
This house is ours.


Conjunctions – இணைப்புச்சொற்கள் / இடைச்சொற்கள்

A Conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences
Example: and, but, or, either, neither, before, because etc….
Rama and Hari are friends.
Butter or cheese
I took the umbrellabecause it was raining.

Interjections – வியப்பிடைச்சொற்கள்
Example: Wow! Ha! Hi! Hello! Oh!
Wow!I won the match!

Determiner
A determiner is a word that introduces a noun,
Example:  a/an, the, every, this, those,much, or many

A dog
Thelion,
This parrot
Those children 
Every human 
Manythings



Exercises

Circle the noun(s), draw square on the verb(s) and draw triangle on adjective(s), and underline each adverb.

1.       The ship sailed smoothly into the harbour.
2.       My neighbour absolutely adores her cat.
3.       Put the new bookcase there, please.
4.       It rained heavily for most of the night.
5.       This author writes exceptionally gripping novels.
6.       He is surprisingly graceful.
7.       Tomorrow the painters begin work on our house.
8.       Can you believe that the plane actually arrived early?
9.       You must breathe more deeply at this altitude.
10.   My ears and nose became quite cold as we bathed in the sea.
11.   Patiently, Aathi shelled the peas.
12.   Emergency doctors quickly surrounded the incoming patient.
13.   Brad began to draft his report on election immediately after evening meal.
14.   The tree trunks still burns.
15.   The children tried hard to please their mother on her birthday.

Circle the adjectives.
1.       Everyone enjoys a relaxing day at the beach.(3)
2.       I can see about ten umbrellas.
3.       Those umbrellas protect sensitive skin from harmful sunlight.
4.       I usually sunbathe in a place with fewer people.
5.       I have moved there for several years.
6.       The hot sand burned my feet.
7.       When I go to that garden, I take cold drinks and salty snacks.
8.       If I am lucky, I can read an interesting book for a few hours.
9.       Little children play quietly near their parents.

Underline each adverb and draw an arrow to the word being modified.

1.       We cleaned the house thoroughly last week.
2.       Sandra rearranged the furniture yesterday.
3.       Drivers on the expressway must be very careful.
4.       The votes for president are still being counted.
5.       Rihana does exceptionally fine work.
6.       The Sri Lankan rugs were incredibly expensive.
7.       I heard your question clearly, but I don’t know the answer.
8.       The city often holds concerts in the playground.
9.       We write the answer quite correctly.
10.   The wind was bitterly cold during the month of January.


Label every word in following sentences.
Noun (N) Verb (V) Adjective (Adj) Adverb (Adv)

1. The student tasted the hamburger.
                N             V                             N
2. The bun tasted good.

3. The very big dog appears in the programme “Suttri warum bhomi”

4. The young child was skipping quickly.

5. Hope should not be ignored.

6. The girl feels incredibly sick today.

7. Today is not becoming a beautiful day.



Write the word class of the underlined word
1. _______ Tara picked a fresh rose out of the garden for her aunt.
2. _______ Do you know anyone with a rose garden?
3. _______ The sleeping bear cubs rose its mother for attention.
4. _______ We will book a hotel room before leaving for our trip.
5. _______ Caveri bought a new book.
06. _______ Sara needs more yellowpaint to finish the painting.
07. _______ Yellow is a warm colour.
08. _______ I ate some baby carrots for lunch.
09. _______ The newborn baby cried all night.
10. _______ My dad will baby his new car by waxing it every week.


Write the word class of the underlined word in the given gap.

a)      The house needed a good clean. ……………………………………………
b)      We clean the room………………………………………………………………….
c)       We need clean water and fresh air. ………………………………………
d)      I clean forgot about the exam. ………………………………………………

a)      We don’t eat or drink during fast. ……………………………………………
b)      My uncle bought a fast car. …………………………………………………….
c)       He runs fast. ……………………………………………………………………………
d)      Muslims fast during Ramadan. ……………………………………………….

a)      The rupees have fallen to an all-time low against the dollar. ……………………………………………
b)      The cows low in the morning. ……………………………………………………………………………………………
c)       The plane is flying at low altitude. ……………………………………………………………………………………..
d)      The candles were burning low. ………………………………………………………………………………………….

e)      Come out! ………………………………………………………………………….
f)       She ran out into the garden. ……………………………………………
g)      He was looking for an out. ……………………………………………..
h)      Their motives were outed………………………………………………

a)      I wrote wrong answers. ……………………………………………
b)      He didn’t do any wrong. ……………………………………………
c)       She wronged him
d)      My name is spelt wrong. ……………………………………………

a)      The water lily in the pond is beautiful……………………………………………
b)      We water the vegetable every morning………………………………………..
c)       There are some ducks gliding on the water……………………………………

a)      The well is near the wall………………………………………………………………………………………….
b)      The well-known poet was appreciated by the chief minister………………………………….
c)       She writes well…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

d)      Children enjoy making sand castles on the beach…………………………………………….
e)      The workers sand and polish the chair……………………………………………………………..
f)       People walk on the sand……………………………………………………………………………………

a)      There is a lecture on feminism……………………………………………….
b)      This is the lecture hall…………………………………………………………….

c)       These scholars lecture in sociology……………………………………………

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